addtime：2023-11-11 author：xinyuren hits：319
electric energy storage forms include pumped storage, molten salt heat storage, and new energy storage, among which new energy storage includes hydrogen energy storage, sodium-ion batteries, lead-acid batteries, flow batteries, supercapacitors, flywheel energy storage, compressed air, etc. the technical characteristics and application scenarios of different energy storage forms are shown in the following figure.
with mature technology and large energy storage capacity, pumped storage is an important means of long-term energy storage. the cumulative installed capacity accounts for 77% of the total energy storage in china, and the construction site is greatly affected by geographical conditions. compressed air energy storage, with large energy storage capacity and relatively small investment, is an important means of long-term energy storage, and is listed as one of the key directions of the "14th five-year plan" new energy storage core technology and equipment, and the construction site is greatly affected by geographical conditions; the electrochemical energy storage technology is mature, the installed capacity is growing rapidly, and it is a minute to hour level energy storage means. flywheel energy storage, high energy density, charging and discharging times, long service life, short storage time; supercapacitor energy storage, large initial investment, high power, fast charge and discharge, low energy density.
short-term energy storage focuses on grid security issues such as ensuring that the power system maintains balance under instantaneous interference, while long-term energy storage generally focuses on achieving the balance between peak and valley supply and demand. by 2022, the installed capacity of wind power is 365 million kilowatts, and the installed capacity of solar power is 393 million kilowatts, accounting for 13.4% of the total electricity consumption of the society, and the proportion of installed capacity will be further increased in the future. new energy power generation "spring and autumn more, less winter and summer" output distribution will further increase the difficulty of winter and summer power "supply", long-term energy storage as a long-term storage energy and economic maintenance of a few hours, days or even months of power supply of technical solutions, will gradually become a high proportion of renewable energy control power system dilemma solution.
hydrogen has the characteristics of clean and low carbon, safe and controllable, wide use, flexible storage and transportation. surplus, off-peak or low-quality electricity can be used to produce hydrogen on a large scale, converting electrical energy into hydrogen energy for storage, and then converting hydrogen into electric energy through fuel cells or other means when the power output is insufficient to deliver it to the internet to achieve peak load and valley filling. the narrow sense of hydrogen energy storage is based on the bidirectional conversion process of "electric-hydrogen-electricity", which uses the surplus new energy energy in the valley period to electrolyze water to produce hydrogen and store it. during the peak of electricity consumption, the stored hydrogen is returned to the grid. generalized hydrogen energy storage emphasizes the unidirectional conversion process of "electric-hydrogen" or "hydrogen-electricity".
on the power generation side, hydrogen energy storage can promote the absorption of renewable energy in the process of "electric-hydrogen-electricity" conversion, smooth out output fluctuations, and narrow the error with the planned output. on the power grid side, hydrogen energy storage can participate in peak load balancing and load balancing. on the user side, it can be used as a flexible voluntary demand response, for peak valley arbitrage, or as a backup power supply and off-grid power supply.
hydrogen energy storage is different from other energy storage methods and is less restricted by geographical factors, and its energy storage capacity can be expanded by increasing the size of hydrogen storage tanks, at a lower marginal cost, independent of the scale of power generation and hydrogen production, and its energy storage scale and cycle are far more than compressed air and pumped storage. in the face of extreme weather (no wind and no light for several days), natural disasters or emergencies affecting the power supply of the grid, hydrogen power generation can be used to deal with regional people's livelihood and other electricity demand problems, enhance the supply security ability of important users, and enhance the toughness of power supply.
hydrogen energy can be integrated and coordinated with the power grid to play the flexible support role of energy storage in the new power system, or it can be independently formed outside the power grid, hydrogen energy transport and supply network, its own system, independent operation, and applied to industry, transportation, construction, power and other fields.
hydrogen energy storage will become an important solution for long-term energy storage
at present, hydrogen energy storage has a complete industrial chain, demonstration projects have achieved phased results, and the future development of hydrogen energy storage has broad prospects. the level of hydrogen energy equipment technology is constantly improving, and it has the ability to support the large-scale development of hydrogen energy storage industry.
the chemical energy storage system with hydrogen energy as the core covers hydrogen preparation, storage and transportation, and hydrogen power generation. hydrogen production: alkaline water electrolysis hydrogen production technology has the international advanced level and obvious cost advantages, proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production technology with the international advanced level, with catalysts, membrane electrodes and other key material components r & d and manufacturing capabilities, pem megawatt hydrogen production equipment off-line application; storage and transportation: mainly in high-pressure storage and transportation, 35mpa vehicle iii bottle and 45mpa station hydrogen storage container have been mass produced, 70mpa vehicle iii bottle has been demonstrated application, vi bottle has been completed development has not yet been commercialized application. the key material of hydrogen storage cylinder large filament carbon fiber has achieved a breakthrough in domestic production, the performance index of fixed hydrogen storage cylinder group has basically reached the international advanced level, the hydrogen transport long tube trailer is developing from 20mpa grade to 30mpa and above pressure grade, and the low temperature hydrogen storage technology has been demonstrated and applied to 1.5 tons/day liquid hydrogen equipment. solid and liquid storage and transportation technologies for various technical routes are under development; in terms of fuel cells, the technical level of proton exchange membrane and gas diffusion layer has been gradually improved, and catalyst technology is at the international advanced level, and small-batch production has been initially achieved. the localization of core components such as membrane electrodes, bipolar plates, air compressors, and hydrogen circulation pumps is accelerating, and the gap with the international advanced level is rapidly narrowing. the level of reactor and system integration has been greatly improved, and it has developed in the direction of high power, long life and low cost, and its technology and performance are at the international advanced level, and it has mass manufacturing capability.
the hydrogen energy market ranks among the top in the world, demonstration projects continue to be implemented, infrastructure construction is accelerating, and a diversified supply and independent and controllable hydrogen energy market is gradually taking shape. china is the world's largest hydrogen market. in 2021, the global hydrogen energy production is 94 million tons, and china's hydrogen production is about 33 million tons, of which coal hydrogen production, industrial by-product hydrogen production, natural gas hydrogen production and electrolytic water hydrogen production account for 62%, 18%, 19% and 1%, respectively. progress has been made in the demonstration projects of hydrogen energy in the fields of transportation, chemical industry, metallurgy, energy storage and construction. more than 350 hydrogen refueling stations have been built, and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is close to 13,000, ranking first in the world. there are more than 100 planned, under construction and in operation of electrolytic water hydrogen production projects, the total scale of hydrogen production 12.1gw, sinopec xinjiang kuqa green hydrogen demonstration, the three gorges narisson photovoltaic hydrogen production projects smoothly put into operation; hesteel 1.2 million tons of hydrogen metallurgy demonstration project was built and put into operation, the index reached the world's leading level; china's first megawatt-level hydrogen energy comprehensive utilization demonstration station was officially put into operation in huiluo 'an; beijing, tianjin and other places have issued special policies related to successive stations to support research and demonstration applications of cogeneration. the continuous landing of hydrogen energy demonstration projects has promoted the further expansion of the industrial scale.
the construction of trans-regional hydrogen transport infrastructure is accelerating. the "west to east hydrogen transmission" pipeline proposed by sinopec, as china's first trans-provincial, large-scale and long-distance pure hydrogen transmission pipeline planning project, has been included in the "national one network" construction implementation plan for oil and gas; in ningxia yinchuan ningdong natural gas hydrogen mixing pipeline demonstration platform, cnpc achieved 24% hydrogen mixing in 397km natural gas pipelines, and made a breakthrough in the technology of long-distance hydrogen transmission by existing natural gas pipelines. the cross-regional hydrogen transportation pipe network system will solve the problem of spatial dislocation of hydrogen production and use, and help the rapid development of the hydrogen energy industry.
hydrogen energy storage has obvious scale cost advantages, the investment cost of electrochemical energy storage is about 2000 yuan /kwh, taking 2mpa medium pressure spherical tank as an example, the investment cost of hydrogen energy storage is about 100 yuan /kwh, if the use of atmospheric gas storage, the investment cost will be doubled down, energy storage cost has obvious advantages, although hydrogen energy storage system faces many challenges, including the "electric-hydrogen-electricity" conversion process efficiency is low, the hydrogen energy storage system investment cost is high, in the "one charge and one release a day" or "two charge and two release a day" arbitrage model is poor economic benefits, the future with the improvement of technical level and profit model, hydrogen energy storage system economy will be improved.
it is expected that by 2060, the total electricity consumption of the whole society will be 17 trillion kwh, and the scale of long-term energy storage will reach 1.5 trillion kwh. hydrogen energy storage, as an important way of long-term energy storage, will become an important part of the new power system and support the realization of carbon neutrality.
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